Pigs

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INTRODUCTION

Pigs also known as swine/hog are domestic animals within the family suidae considered a taboo to the Muslims. Pigs also known as swine are scientifically referred to as Sus domesticus. The male ones are referred to as boar and female ones saw. The life span of a pig is 9 years. They are simple stomached animals and they can be kept indoor or out.

FOOD VALUE

Pork contains very important food values to all ages including children, adults and olds. As a result, it is a recommended part of the meal to all. Pork contains six essential vitamins including, vitamins B1, 2, 3 and 6, four important minerals, phosphorous, magnesium, iron and zinc, protein and energy.

BREEDS

They are three major types of pigs reared in Uganda. While preparing to rear pigs, choose the type depending on the size and the number of piglets it can bear.

• Large white: This breed is white in colour, has erect ears and a ditched face. Although it is not quick in maturing, it is a good feed converter. Land race: This breed is white in colour with a long and big body that has deep sides. It has a straight snout and loped ears which cover most of the face. This breed is mainly used for bacon.

• Crossbreed: Cross breeding is practiced because it combines the desirable traits in the parent breeds into one animal. The major traits to consider are fast growth rate, good feed efficiency, resistant diseases and good litter size and mothering ability.

• Hampshire breed: This is black in colour with a white belt around the shoulder fore quarters. It is medium size breed with a straight face, erect ears, good nursing ability and produces an excellent lean carcass

• Duroc breed: This breed mahogany to red in colour. It is has good mothering ability. It is resistant to stress and adaptable to various environmental conditions and is very useful in crossbreeding programs.


SITE LOCATION

A good site for pig rearing should have the following in place:

The house must be constructed at a well drained clean ground on a gentle slope 30m away from the main house where culture accommodates the presence of pigs. This is because if the house is not well cleaned, they may emit a smell. Also because they are considered as a taboo to some people.

The place must be accessible for the people working on the farm and must be in an area where it is easy to deliver incoming feeds and other farm inputs Because pigs need enough water for drinking, the house should be constructed near a permanent source of water. They should also be constructed near enough roughage and closer to the market Drainage from the piggery must not be allowed to enter a running stream. This is to control water pollution.

HOUSING

Pigs require worm dry housing free from dust as they easily get pneumonia. The floor should be well drained and concreted and not too close to dwelling houses.

To shelter pigs several building styles can be used as indicated below.

Build a temporary house using timber cut offs to fence the shelter house. Ensure enough ventilation and the floor should be strong, concrete and drenched outside to allow drainage of urine, feces and easy cleaning. Construct a house using bricks, cement, sand, and timber and iron sheets to make a compartment of 4x6 depending on the number of pigs. It should be above the ground level from 21/2 to 31/2 ft above the ground this helps the pig to be cleaned. If the land is flat, use 21/2 if sloping 21/2 3-4 on lower side and 2 on upper sides with enough space for feeding and drinking.

Build a semi permanent structure using timber poles, grass, banana fibers or iron sheets to cover it and then make a hard floor. Ensure that the roof is high enough in case of hot environments to allow air circulation

BREEDING

Breeding and mating is one of the activities that a farmer will carry out on almost a day to day basis. Farmers must check on the pigs in the breeding herd to ensure that they know the gilt or sow on heat and give them the male.

Breeding is of two types. 

Pen breeding where a boar is left with a group of sows as opposed to keeping the boar in a pen to which sows on heat are brought for service. Hand breeding, this where the pig on heat is taken to the boar for service. A female and male pig matures at 8 - 11 months depending on the care given.

If poorly fed, pigs remain undersized and will delay to mature. 

A boar should not start mating until it is more than 8 months of age and during the first 2 months of mating it should mate only twice a week. A healthy saw is able to breed for 3 to 4 years. After that, it becomes less productive as it grows.

While selecting animals to mate:


SIGNS OF HEAT:



Birth

NB: Saws can get pregnant again after 1 month.

FEEDING


GENERAL CARE
The following are important tips to note in order to raise healthy pest and disease free pigs


COMMON DISEASES: PREVENTION & MANAGEMENT

DISEASE 1: SWINE FEVER

CAUSES

VIRUS

SYMPTOMS

PREVENTION
• Avoid human visitors to the animal sties to avoid spread of the disease.
• prevention keep hygiene in the house
• Avoid giving pigs leftover bones and blood to feed on. Especially from pigs
• Avoid mixing sick animals with the healthy ones.
• Avoid rearing animals on a free range system. This will help to avoid contact with wild animals that may spread the disease
• Keep the pigs indoors to avoid contamination
• Dig a hole under a shade of a tree and always keep it wet
• Don’t throw bones any how because this may lead to pigs eating them
• Good feeding to boost immunity.

TREATMENT

DISEASE 2: HOG CHOLERA

CAUSES
Virus

SYMPTOMS


PREVENTION


DISEASE 3: TETENUS

CAUSES
Virus

SYMPTOMS

PREVENTION

TREATMENT
Consult the nearest agriculture extension worker as soon as it is recognized or suspected.

DISEASE 7: FOOTROT
Foot rot is a disease that attacks animals staying or grazing in wet or muddy areas causing damage to the hooves. Foot rot is caused by bacteria of the fusiformis group and is more common during wet periods especially when animals graze in stagnant mud and water.

CAUSES
Bacteria

SYMPTOMS

DISEASE 7: SWINE ERYSIPELAS (DIAMOND SKIN)
This is an infectious disease affecting mainly young pigs.

CAUSES

Virus

SYMPTOMS

PREVENTION

Vaccination

TREATMENT

Consult the nearest veterinary worker.

PNEUMONIA

CAUSES

SYMPTOMS

PREVENTION


VASCULAR EXANTHEMA
This is highly an infectious virus disease which may be confused with foot and mouth disease. The infection is mostly raw garbage containing infected pork .Its more severe in young pigs.

CAUSES

SYMPTOMS

PREVENTION

CONTROL
Isolate affected animals, quarantine

HYPOGLYCEMA (BABY PIG DISEASE/ 3 DAYS DISEASE)
This is a bacteria disease which occurs in the first few days of a pig’s life.

CAUSES
Bacteria

SYMPTOMS


PREVENTION

CONTROL
Visit the nearest health work.
SWINE DYSENTRY
This is a pig disease that causes a severe swelling of the large intestine with a bloody mucous diarrhea. It survives out side the pig for 7 days.

CAUSES
Bacteria

SYMPTOMS

PREVENTION


CONTROL
Use of antibiotics will reduce death losses.

GENERAL CONTROL OF DISEASES


COMMON PESTS: PREVENTION & MANAGEMENT


PEST 1: TICKS
A ticks is a small, round, parasitic pest that stick to an area of the host, insert its head under the skin sucking out blood. They are of different types e.g. the blue tick, brown ear tick, ambylomma, red legged tick.


SYMPOMS

PREVENTION & CONTROL

TREATMENT
Crush 500 grams of young, dried tephrosia leaves in 10 litres of water and, mix in 200g bar soap to make a spray against them. These help to break the life cycle of the ticks there by preventing more spread.
Dip or spray the animals at least once a week.

PEST 2: LICE
Lice are small, insect like soft bodied parasites that live mainly on the skin or hair of animals and humans sucking out blood. They may be black or white.

SYMPTOMS

PREVENTION & CONTROL
Keep the house clean all the time with no dust. Dirt acts as a breeding ground for lice.

TREATMENT
Get tephrosia and add water 1-2 parts of water to 1kg pounded leaves into 2liters of water and smear on the infected animal.

FLEAS
Fleas are small 1.5 to 3.3 mm long, dark coloured wingless insects with tube-like mouthparts which feed on blood of their hosts. They attack livestock and cause irritation, itching and anemia.

CAUSES
Poor hygiene

SIGNS

PREVENTION
Keep the pigs’ house clean all the time especially with no dust.
TREATMENT
Get dry ash and smear on the body after cleaning it at least once a week.


PEST 3: WORMS
A worm is an elongated soft-bodied invertebrate animal that attack animals


CAUSES

SYMPTOMS

• Vomiting
• Coughing incase of lungworms

PREVENTION & CONTROL
 

TREATMENT

JIGGERS
Jiggers are small insects which result from fleas. They enter the body of the animal and suck out blood causing anemia and irritation.

CAUSES
Poor hygiene
SYMPTOMS

PREVENTION
Keep hygiene in the house and remove all the dust to destroy the breeding grounds.

TREATMENT
Get 1kg of ripe endod (olwoko), crush to a paste then smear on the areas affected with jiggers atleast once a week until the animal heals.

URINE AND DUNG
Get 2 cups of pig urine; mix with a handful of crushed neem tree leaves and spray on crops to repel pests.
Tips

NEVER EAT dead animals.

post harvest handling

Pork is obtained and can be fried or roasted on fire

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