List of Acronyms
- BROSDI: Busoga Rural Open Source and Development Initiative
- NARO: National Agricultural Research Organization
- ICT: Information Communication Technology
- HIVOS: Humanistisch Instituut voor Ontwikkelingssamenwerking
- CELAC: Collecting and Exchange of Local Agriculture Content
- FMD: Foot And Mouth Disease
- TB: Tuberclosis
- ECF: East Coast Fever
Cattle are the most widely domesticated animals in Uganda. They are reared mainly for meat (beef) and milk as well as its products like skin for the leather industry, dung for fuel, manure and urine for pesticide and fertilizer.
- Luganda: Ente
- Luo: Ndyang
- Runyakitara: Ente
- Kiswahili: N'gombe
The food value levels highly depend on animal feeds provided. The following are food values for a well fed animal?? To NARO
Milk: 100 grams of milk contain 87.99 water, 61 energy, protein 3.29, fats 3.34, minerals 0.72 and carbohydrates.
Beef: I is a source of vitamin A ,protein, calories, Vitamin E.
In Uganda they are 2 major types local and exotic. The indigenous types include; Ankole long horned (Sanga), The East African Short Horn (Zebu), Karamojong, Nkediand the nganda types.
The exotic breeds are mainly dairy breeds like Friesians, Jerseys and redpoll. They are also divided into diary and cattle for beef.
A suitable place for rearing cattle should have the following in place;
Big area with well drained soils, having Short grass for grazing near a water source. Its location should permit access to veterinary services and allow morning and evening rays reach for sun bathing.
It should be an area free from tsetse flies, national parks which may have animals that share the same diseases with cattle.
The diary types of cattle are mainly reared in highland areas. This is because they require lower temperatures whereas the beef cattle require higher temperatures and thus are reared in areas of lower altitude where temperatures are slightly higher.
Zero grazing: Under this system cows are confined in a shade or yard. Though the system is productive, it requires a lot of labour especially to look for cattle feeds and water. Cows are not allowed to move about.
Tethering: Cows are tied on pegs using ropes 6 metres long. They graze in one area per time and then shifted to other grazing places.
Paddocking: Cows are placed in grazing areas separated into different apartments where supplements and water are supplied to each animal within the fenced area.
It is advisable to construct a fence using live fence e.g. Finger Euphorbia (locally referred to as rukoni) together with barbed wire and make a shade using poles inside with a separate apartment for the young. The unit must include a milking place.
Incase of a house, construct using poles, bricks or mud, make a 3/4 way finished house to allow enough fresh air in the house. Leave separate sections for the calf pens, adults, milking, feeding and forage store area.
It should have a leak proof roof with a strong raised slanting floor. It is important to construct an outlet to the trench surrounding the house in order to allow drainage of waste materials and easy cleaning. The collected wastes can be fermented to make fertilizers.
Selection is done in order to choose good quality bulls and cows as parents of the next generation. The objective is to improve the performance of animals especially in terms of fertility, growth rate and carcass quality. Keep breeding and production records in order to identify the most productive animals. When selecting cattle for breeding, keep heifer calves that have large pelvises. In case of bulls, the mother cow should also have a large pelvis.
Check bulls for STDs, scrotum circumference and general physical health before breeding. Use bulls that are known to have quality calves according to their records. Keep your cows and heifers in good condition. This can be done with the help of an extension worker.
An overfed or underfed cow will not only have less chance of conceiving, but it also increases the risks to the calf's health at birth. Record breeding dates accurately show that you will be able to notice the pregnancy signs and determine if a cow has conceived as soon as possible.
- Cattle mature sexually at 15months. It is better to serve them at 18 months when they are fully grown. This can be done either artificially by insemination or naturally by use of a bull. After successful fertilization, the gestation period takes 9 months.
- If well looked after, they are ready to deliver their first calf by the age of 24months (2years).
- A cow is ready to conceive again after 3 months from the time of delivery.
- An average cow is productive for 7 to 9 years if it is well looked after.
Signs Of Maturity
Cows are on heat for about 6 to 8 hours in a day and stand for a few minutes to be mounted, making it important to the farmer to be observant. If it fails to get a bull during that period, it will take 7 days to be on heat again and after that, it takes 3 weeks.
Cows are on heat around mid day during cold seasons whereas its better watching them morning and evening in case it's a hot season. This is because this is the time when they experience maximum heat. This gives them higher chances of fertilization.
Signs Of Heat
- Chin resting and rubbing
- Clear mucous discharge
- Decreased milk production in lactating mothers
- Frequent urination
- Wailing(crying), restlessness, sniff behavior
- Mounting other cows or even walls
- Stands to be mounted
- Swollen and red valve tips
- Stands near the gate (outlet)
Provide new born calves, with colostrum (The first milk secreted after delivery)( within 24 hours after birth to improve its resistance to diseases. Leave the newly born calf with its mother for the first 3 days to suckle. After which it is important to place the calf in a dry clean place. Give it 5 liters of milk per day.
At 8 weeks, allow the calf to access clean fresh pasture during good weather. Supplement feeds with minerals. Provide at least 5 litres of water per day. Graze the calf in a fenced paddock to avoid worm infection.
To feed milking cows, provide them with 2 - 4 kg per 100 kgs of roughage such as grass, fodder, silage, hay per day to gain normal -weight and 1 kg of concentrates for every 2 - 5 liters of milk produced. Give water to adult animals all the time.
To feed adult cattle, provide them with variety of feeds such as legumes, natural and artificial grasses e.g. hay, maize bran, food peelings of bananas, potatoes and food remains.
Also give animals supplements such as mineral leak and lots of clean water for drinking.
Ensure that feeds are provided in clean feeding troughs to avoid pests and disease attacks and de-worm animals at 3 months interval.
- Clean the resting ground every day
- Groom your animal when going to milk
- Use a dipping system to reduce pests
- Provide clean water and clean troughs every day
- Treat sick animals as soon as they are identified
- Separate sick animals from normal incase of an outbreak to minimize losses
- Do not allow new animals to join the flock before treatment
- Restrict people who enter animal houses
- Select a health bull to father your animals
- Spray at weekly intervals to control ticks
- Construct a crush for human handling
- Provide drinking water to animals before dipping
- Dehorn and provide identification for animals using a qualified person.
- Vaccination should be done against diseases e.g. FMD
- Graze calves, heifers and adults separately
- Graze young cows ahead of the old ones
- Avoid overgrazing
- Do not encourage inbreeding and line breeding
- Provide adequate treatment for the sick animals and consult the nearest veterinary doctors/extension workers
- Provide salt all the times
Common Diseases: Prevention & Management
Disease 1: Foot And Mouth Disease (FMD)
Foot and mouth disease also known as hoof and mouth disease is a highly contagious, acute disease in cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and humans.
- Wounds in the mouth and foot.
- Rotting of the hooves.
- Saliva (drooping).
- High fever.
- Failure to eat.
- Drop-in milk production.
- Vaccinate animals on time (every after 6 months).
- Do not move infected animals
- Avoid contact with dung, meat, humans and contaminated equipment like vehicles.
- Crush ripe seeds of endod weed (omuhoko) put it in a clean cloth and apply on the wound for 2-3 days.
- Wash wounds with table salt Solution and apply some on wounds.
- Crush endod (omuhoko) leaves into powder, mix with jelly and rub the affected parts.
Disease 2: East Coast Fever (ECF)
East coast fever is a protozoan parasite which is transmitted brown ear ticks. Animals grazing in bushes + thick grass are at high risk.
Protozoa, carried by brown ear ticks.
- Increase in temperatures
- High fever
- Loss of appetite
- Swollen lymph nodes below the ears and in front of the shoulders or the knees.
- Difficult in breathing and the animal coughs in advanced stages
- Saliva dropping
- Tears in the eyes
- Rough coat
- Drop in milk production.
- Failure to move
- Affected calves may stunt even after recovery
- On death froth appear from the nositils/nose
- Paddocking animals to avoid tick attacks
- Keep the pasture in grazing fields short by regular slashing
- Clear bushes regularly to control ticks
- Seek advise from an extension worker
- Cut the affected lymph node and apply the sap of enkulukulu Runyankole,nandere Lusoga
- Get finger euphorbia (rukoni) sap and apply on the enlarged lymph nodes.
- Get 2 handfuls of tephrosia and crush in 3 liters of water. Spray regularly to control ticks.
Disease 3: Helminthiasis
Helminthiasis is infestation with one or more intestinal parasitic worms e.g. roundworms, tape worm or hookworms.
- Endo parasites
- Caused by eating contaminated pastures and water.
- Rough coat and standing hair
- Loss of weight
- Loss of appetite
- Saliva dripping
- Tears rolling from eyes
- Itching of the anus
- Rotational grazing
- De worm animals regularly (at least 3 times a year).
- Routine management e.g. cleaning water /feed troughs.
- Avoid mixing herds and grazing in swampy areas.
Get a hand full of asthma weed, add 1 litre of water and boil for 30 minute. Let it cool and give 1 cup two times a day, morning and evening for 3 days to adult animals.
Disease 4: Anaplasmosis
Infectious disease caused by protozoa and transmitted by ticks. Mainly transmitted by the blue tick.
- High temp above 40C
- Loss of weight
- Constipation (Dry dung)
- Jaundice / John's disease (enkaka) can be seen when eyelids turn yellow
- Gum and valve turns yellow
- Maintain sanitation in animal houses.
- Clear bushes surrounding the grazing areas.
- Avoid mixing animals from different areas.
Disease 5: Anthrax
It's an acute bacterial disease which is dangerous to cattle and human. It's usually contracted by animals grazing in contaminated areas.
- High fever followed by bowel swelling
- Sudden death.
- At death, blood comes out from anus, mouth and nose.
- To prevent, vaccinate livestock and continue once a year
- Quarantine sick animals.
- Meat from sick animals SHOULD NOT BE EATEN
- Burn + bury the carcass / dead animals.
Disease 6: Mastitis
Mastitis is a bacterial disease in milk producing animals. It can occur in acute or chronicle form depending on the bacteria type.
- Poor milking
- High fever
- Swollen udder
- Hard teats
- Reduced milk
- High temperatures
- Loss of appetite
- Contaminated milk with pass. Warm breasts
- general body weakness
- Painful body
- Red skin
- Practice hygienic methods of milking.
- Avoid cattle injuries
- Milk at right intervals
- Apply right milking techniques. E.g. squeeze method
- Avoid over milking
- Milk affected cows last
- Get wild onions, mix with small stick broom omubuza (runyankore) / akeyeyo crush and smear on the udder. After 20-30 minutes smear with ash mixed with paraffin drops. Repeat until it heals
- Treat with antibiotics
Disease 7: Footrot
Foot rot is a disease that attacks animals staying or grazing in wet or muddy areas causing damage to the hooves
Stagnant mud and water in grazing and sleeping areas.
- Hooves + animal skin weaken making it easy for bacteria to penetrate due to injury.
- Swelling of the feet
- Reluctant to walk
- Mild fever
- Unclean smell
- Ensure dry animal kraals / pens
- Proper manure disposal
- Clean hooves with a brush and clean water
- Squeeze a handful of endod (olwoko) leaves and rub the affected area.
Disease 8: Rinder Pest
An infectious viral disease of cattle. It had disappeared from Uganda due to compulsory vaccinations for many years.
- Loss of appetite
- Nasal discharge
- Running eyes
- Raise of temperature
- A harsh dry cough.
- Discharge from the eyes and nose.
- In female animals, wounds in the valve and mouth.
- Hardship in breathing
- Severe diarrhea causing rapid dehydration and death.
All animals above one year need to be vaccinated. one vaccination is enough for the animal's life time.
- Slaughter, bury or burn carcasses
Disease 9: Pneumonia
It's an infection of lungs which may be caused by bacteria or virus within dust particles. Stress like poor sanitation, overcrowding and build-up of irritating gases, dust or numerous other un hygienic conditions and microorganisms which cause lung tissue damage.
Bacteria or virus
- Difficulty in breathing
- Bronchioles condition
- High or low temperatures
- Reluctance to move
- The animal is sleepy and dull
- Nasal discharge (mucus out of the nose)
- Loss of appetite
To prevent, eradicate the causes by:
- Stress conditions
- Keep strict hygiene
- Treat early cases with anti biotic
- Provide soft feeds with enough water
- Disinfect the shelter
- Keep the animals in a warm shelter
Disease 10: Cowdiosis
Cowdiosis (heart water) is a bacterial disease common in cattle and goats spread by ticks.
Protozoa parasite transmitted by ticks
- Excess blood in the animal body causing high fever
- Hardness in breathing
- Crush muluku and mix with water then wash/ smear the animal to control ticks.
- Clear bushes around the grazing area.
Cut the ears in the middle so that the excess blood can ooze out.
Disease 11: Bloat
Bloat is a live stock stomach disorder resulting from poor eating habits such as feeding on grass with a lot of dew that leads to excess air in the rumen. It is also common during dry periods when animals are fed on young fresh grass which has too much protein without enough roughage. This also leads to too much gas in the rumen.
Excess air in the rumen.
- Swelling of the stomach after meals.
- Difficulty in breathing.
- Trying to vomit but failing.
- Avoid early grazing when there is dew.
- Provide enough roughage to the animals
- Avoid over feeding on fresh grass after dry periods
- Provide 300 ml of vegetable cooking oil to drink.
- Mix 500gm of rock salt + 1 liter of water, stir well and give an adult cow 1 liter of the mixture.
- The animal should be walked very fast to reduce the gas
Disease 12: Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by bacteria and spread through sharing of feeds and communal grazing of the infected, healthy animals.
- Looses weight.
- Develops high temperatures and may die
- In milk producing animals, milk production is low.
- Always boil milk from cow before drinking to avoid getting TB
- Vaccinate animals to prevent TB
- Quarantine infected animals
- Burn and bury dead animals
Disease 13: Mad Cow
Mad cow disease may be spread where animals are fed on other animals.
- Change of behavior
- Uncoordinated movements,
- Problems standing and walking
- Loss of weight
- Low milk production for lactating animals
- Loss of physical coordination
- Poor mobility
- Avoid feeding animals with animal remains
- Quarantine sick animals
Dead animals must not be eaten.
Common Pests: Prevention & Management
Pest 1: Ticks
A ticks is a small, round, parasitic pest that stick to an area of the host, insert its head under the skin sucking out blood. They are of different types e.g. The blue tick, brown ear tick,ambylomma,red legged tick.
- Cause itching and irritation, blood loss
- May spread east coast fever, cowdriosis (heart water) and red water diseases.
- Death especially with hybrids.
Prevention & Control
- Maintain sanitation in animal houses
- Clear bushes surrounding the grazing areas
- Avoid mixing animals from different areas
- Avoid mixing infected animals with normal ones as this may lead to infection of others
Crush 500 grams of young, dried tephrosia leaves in 10 litres of water and, mix in 200g bar soap to make a spray against them. These help to break the life cycle of the ticks there by preventing more spread.
Dip or spray the animals at least once a week.
Pest 2: Lice
Lice are small, insect like soft bodied parasites that live mainly on the skin or hair of animals and humans sucking out blood. They may be black or white.
- Body itching and irritation.
- Skin rash.
Prevention & Control
Keep the grazing areas clean all the time.
- Get a handful of ash, add 2 cups of water, filter and spray the animal.
- Get a handful of tephrosia add a match box size of ash and crush. Smear the animals once a week.
Pest 3: Helmithiasis
These include all internal parasites like lung and hook worms.
- Loss of weight.
Prevention & Control
- Provide fresh clean feeds.
- Maintain hygiene around the animals.
Get a handful of fresh moringa leaves and mix with other animal feeds to deworm the animals.
Pest 4: Tse- Tse Flies
A tsetse fly is a wild big fly that feeds on the blood of animals. They cause nagana in animals and sleeping sickness in humans. They are mainly found in bushes and humid areas. They are more active during morning and evening hours.
Very painful fly bites which causes jumping or running of the animal.
Prevention & Control
- Clear the bush around grazing areas.
- Avoid grazing in the same area for a long time and clear thick bushes.
- Avoid grazing early morning or very late in the evening.
- Spray with tsetse fly pesticides
- Use tsetse fly traps.
- Seek advice from an extension worker.
General Control Of Diseases
- Isolate infected animals.
- Never make sudden feed changes.
- Avoid overcrowding and poor sanitation in intensive production systems which often lead to disease. Overcrowding is stressful to cattle. Also, the close proximity allows contagious diseases to be spread more quickly.
- Control movement of animals.
- Water, feed troughs and beddings should be always clean.
- Practice maximum hygiene.
- Provide the animals with enough food and drinks.
Diary cattle are ready for sale at the 7th calving. For beef producers, the animals are sold or slaughtered at 30 months.
Incase of milking cows, ensure proper milking hours. Milking should be done in the morning and evening hours. Wash hands and udder with warm water before milking.
For consumption: Boil milk in a clean source pan and take while still hot and undiluted or mix it with hot water and tea leaves to make tea. Serve while still hot or mix it with porridge and boil while stirring until it mixes evenly before serving.
To make yogurt, heat 4 cups of fresh milk gradually on a stove over low medium heat but don't let it boil. Add 1/3 cup of powdered milk, for more thickness. Remove from heat and let it cool. If you are using existing yogurt as a starter, mix 1/2 cup of organic yogurt to act as a starter and to ease break up of the particles making mixing with the rest of the milk easier. Place on a warm stove for 8hrs and then cool.
This is a pure butter fat made out of milk and looks like liquid gold in color used to add flavor to all food types. It is said to have antiviral and anticancer properties, helps in digestion of nutrients. It's a vitamins supplement and a main source of energy.
To make it, Leave milk for about a day until its sour, stir the milk until the fat coagulates and separates into solid ghee and liquid. Collect the ghee and wash it before packing. The ghee can be heated to evaporate any remaining water or left to mature for about 2 -3 days. Add a little salt before storing ghee into a container and cover when it cools.
The whey (water which remains after removing butter, ghee or cheese) can be used to feed animals like pigs.
Hides are flayed / skinned off the animals when mature. They are cleaned and dried before sale to traders for cultural purposes, crafts making and to the leather factories.
Flaying: This is the removal of the skin. It is best done with a sharp knife and immediately after slaughter of the animal. Where possible the hide should be pulled off instead of cutting off. To avoid contamination, remove the intestines and stomach after flaying.
Care of hides: Wash well in order to remove blood, dung and any other contaminations.
Fleshing is the removal of the remaining fats and meat from the hide. Spread the skin/hide on a clean surface and flesh by scrapping with a sharp curved knife.
Trimming is done to remove rough edges and un wanted parts e.g. the udder and tail borne.
- Air curing: This is done by hanging the hides on the ground under sunshine.
- Salting: Here salt is spread on the skin/hide.
Pests: These include; mice, rats and beetles which mainly cause damage to hide and skins in store.
Control: set traps in the store
Use of organic pesticides e.g. neem dry leaves to repel them out. These are scattered in the store.
These are fed to dogs and used for making plates, cups which are breakable
Legs (Emolokony) consumed for medicinal purposes e.g. hardening ligaments.
How to make products from cattle bones
Get raw bones of dead /slaughtered animals, cut into pieces of desired size and immerse in water for 12 hours. This helps to soften the bones. Leave to cool then get the pieces, scrap and clean.
Then these are soft enough, shape to a desired object on a lathe. Get a file drill and curve to the desired shape.
Get the solid part of a horn and soak it in water. If shaping is needed, then heat the carved piece for about 5-10 minutes in hot but un boiling water. This softens the horn. Smoothen with the help of a rough, flat or half round file and a sharp stainless steel blade. After drill bores, light cuts and channels in the required places on the body of the horn work. Polished with the help of rough leaves or sand paper till it becomes smooth and shiny.
Clean with water and dry in open air. After drying polish with ash made from cow dung or charcoal ash and then assemble as desired. To make it look more beautiful, smear with oil or vanish.
From these you can make table lamps, buttons, and walking sticks, ladles depending on the desired products.
Examine the horn from several angles and decide how much of the rough surface you need to remove and cut off the rough sections as you shape into desired items with the help of a drill.
How to make ladles and spoons out of horns
- Get a horn and heat for 10 minutes to soften.
- Thin by removing a large section of the inside curve by holding the horn with hands so as to view it from the side, then use a marker or a pen to draw the outline of the ladle or spoon.
- Saw off the excess horn using a saw or sand paper by mounting it upside down on a bench or table so that you can have both hands free to control the horn.
- Get a band saw, sander or a hacksaw, make the horn stable on the ground and remove the excess and long parts of the horn shaping it into a ladle proceed slowly, frequently feeling the thickness of the ladle or cup between your fingers so that you do not get it too thin or uneven in thickness. The edge of a ladle should be about 1/8" of an inch.
- To make a backward curve, make the mid-handle thin both from side to side and top to bottom clean up the file marks and smooth the edges of the handle section.
- Use a sharp knife or a piece of glass to polish. Place the blade perpendicular to the length of the horn and carefully scrape the entire length. Make all the scrapes in one direction.
- Once the surface is smooth, you can leave it this way or do more polishing with help of sand paper or steel wool.
- To bend the handle, heat for 10 minutes in hot but not boiling water. As soon as heating is done, use heavily gloved hands to gently bend the neck of the horn around the curved side of a small metal can. This can be done using anything that's round and not affected by heat, such as a glass jar .Hold the spoon in the curved position until it can no longer bend back to its natural shape, then put it aside to cool completely for a couple of hours.
- When cool, smoothen again with steel wool or sand paper then oil. Rub the horn hard with an oiled cloth to get it all warm so that the oil absorbs.
Urine and Dung
Cow dung can be used for floor and wall covering. Get mud; mix with cow dung and water to plaster houses.
To make mud bricks, mix soil with an equal amount of mud.
Get 2 cups of Cattle urine, is mix with a handful of crushed neem tree leaves and spray on crops to repel pests.
To keep away pests like mosquitoes, get cow dung, dry and place it on a hot charcoal stove. The smoke repels mosquitoes.
To protect seeds from pest attack, get the seeds and sock them in a paste made out of a mixture of cow dung and water for a day or two before planting.
- Milk every morning and evening.
- Keep records of activities carried out on the farm.
- Get milk for consumption and leave the young to sack from the mother.
- Don't sale animals which are not in good health.
- Inspection should be done before slaughter.
- NEVER EAT dead animals.
|Picture 1: Bloat|| Picture 2: Foot rot
|Picture 4: Mastitis||Picture 5: Round warm|| |
Picture 6: Nagana
|Picture 8: Tick||Picture 9: Tsetse fly|| |
|Picture 11: lice||Picture 12:|| |
Sources Of Pictures Used In Booklet
On behalf of Farmafripedia, i would like to express sincere thanks to:
BROSDI staff and the CELAC Farmers District Networks of:
- Western region ‚Äì Kabarole, Kasese, Mbarara, Kabale and Bushenyi districts
- Central region ‚Äì Kayunga and Masaka districts
- Easter region ‚Äì Mayuge, Budaka, Mbale, Tororo and Butaleja districts
- Northern region ‚Äì Lira and Apac districts
It is through the energy, volunteer spirit, and zeal that we have been able to produce these booklets.
Special thanks to National Agricultural Research Laboratories - Kawanda, and especially Dr Geofrey Arinaitwe and Dr David Talengera who edited the material embedded within
And last but not least, Hivos that has sponsored the activities within the CELAC Project.
To all of you mentioned above, without your help, this booklet would not be existent.
Thank you very much