Beans (crop)

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Beans is a leguminous crop.... and of traditional diets and they are grown in extremely arid croping systems. Beans are an important source of proteins and they are a good source of calories.

Contents

Local Names

Below is a list of names for this crop in different languages. If you want to add a name, open the editor and edit the "Local Names" section.

Varieties

Below is a list of different varieties for this crop. If you want to add a variety, open the editor and edit the "Varieties" section.

Seed Preparation

Below is a list of different seed preparation techniques for this crop. If you want to add a technique, open the editor and edit the "Seed Preparation" section.

Technique:

Select healthy looking seeds from an early maturing drought resistant variety. Sort beans and sundry them properly. Use healthy looking seeds free from pest attacks. They should not have overstayed for more than 2 years or machine dried. Sort out all damaged seeds and small ones. Before planting, add dry ash to protect them from insect attack. 1 kg is enough for 20 kg of beans. Mix it properly before planting.

Technique:

Get 1 cup/mug of ash, add 4 cups /mugs of water and sieve. Soak the beans in this solution for 5-10 minutes before planting. This prevents pests from damaging the seeds before germination.

Technique:

Prepare the seeds early enough.This facilitates early planting. Sort them well depending on the type you want to plant during that season.

Garden Preparation

Below is a list of different garden preparation techniques. If you want to add a technique, open the editor and edit the "Garden Preparation" section.

Technique:

To prepare land for bean planting, clear land of all vegetation by slashing, cutting excess trees and burning them offsite during the dry season before the start of the rains. Deeply plough land at 15-30cm, dig again after 2 weeks and add compost manure incase the land is not so fertile before planting. Avoid use of fresh mulches as these may easily germinate into weeds.

Fertilizer Application

Below is a list of different methods for applying fertilizer to this crop. If you want to add a method, open the editor and edit the "Fertilizer Application" section.

Technique:

When the bean plants begin to flower, apply compost fertilizer. Divide the amount of fertilizer being applied into small doses according to the number of plants in a 100 sq ft garden area. Apply each dose 6¬8 inches from the base of each plant. Some gardeners spread the fertilizer on the soil surface. Use care to minimize damage to the plant root system. Irrigate after the application in case of the dry season or area.

Technique:

Instead of a single post planting application, some divide the amount into two applications, the second made two to three weeks after the first or apply smaller amounts of fertilizer every two weeks after bearing begins.

Mulching

Below is a list of different mulching techniques for this crop. If you want to add a technique, open the editor and edit the "Mulching" section.

Technique:

This involves use of vegetables such as grass to provide cover to the soil.

Planting and Spacing

Below is a list of different planting and spacing techniques for this crop. If you want to add a technique, open the editor and edit the "Planting and Spacing" section.

Technique:

If you are planting certified bean seed, put only one seed in each hole. If seed is obtained from other farmers or shops, plant 2-3 seeds per hole. Plant the beans in rows. This makes it easier to weed the crop. The recommended spacing is 50 centimeters between rows and 15 – 20 centimeters between plants. When planting different bean varieties, make sure to maintain a space of 2 meters between areas where each different variety is planted to prevent mixing of varieties.. For double row spacing, use 60 by 30 by 10 cm at a depth of 2-3 cm and not deeper than 5cm. When intercropping, always plant beans last. . The seed rate varies depending on the seed type, however it ranges from 45kg/ha for small seed and 90kgs/ha for large seeds. To reduce potential disease problems, it is best to plant beans following a grass crop such as sorghum, rather than after soybeans or sunflowers. Beans should not be grown in the same field consecutively.

Weeding

Below is a list of different weeding techniques for this crop. If you want to add a technique, open the editor and edit the "Weeding" section.

Technique:

Weeds reduce yields due to competition for water, light, nutrients and space. This is why it is important to weed at least 2 times each season. The first weeding must be before 14 days after germination. The timing of the next weeding will depend on weed and crop growth. To keep the bean crop pure, it is better to remove plants that look very different in growth from the varieties you planted. For example, remove plants which climb or have a different leaf shape or flower color. Weed beans twice 1st being 2 weeks after planting and another just before flowering to have good results. Weeding the crop during the flowering season is not recommended as it leads to shedding of flowers leading to low yields.

Harvesting

Below is a list of different harvesting techniques for this crop. If you want to add a technique, open the editor and edit the "Harvesting" section.

Technique:

Only harvest those plants that are ready. Seed which is harvested too early will not produce healthy plants. When all leaves and pods of upright bush bean varieties are yellow. Do not leave the beans to dry in the field after they are harvested as they can be affected by disease or eaten by insects and animals. Beans left in the sun too long may become too dry to threshing, and if left in the rain, will be too wet for threshing. Harvest bean pods when yellow ripe or completely dry before they spill in the garden and avoid insect infestation. Pluck off pods or uproot the whole stem after 2 ½-4 months when they mature depending on the variety, soil and weather.

Technique:

Wait until the beans are ripe and dry.

Technique:

Harvest during morning hours

Technique:

Don’t harvest beans and leave them in the garden. After harvesting, take whatever you harvest home immediately and put in a clean environment.

Post Harvest

Below is a list of different techniques of post harvest treatment for this crop. If you want to add a technique, open the editor and edit the "Post Harvest" section.

Technique:

Drying in pods; before beans can be threshed, they must be dried in the pod. If you start threshing right after harvesting, you will damage the seed because it is too moist to be threshed. Test the moisture of the seed before threshing using your teeth or pinching with your fingers and again before treatment using the salt test. Do not dry beans on the ground. This way they can get dirty, wet, or eaten by animals. You can dry beans in their pods on a mat. Threshing; when you have decided that the beans are dry enough, they can be threshed. Remember that both beans that are too dry and that are too wet can easily be damaged during threshing. Drying threshed seed; When the seed is threshed it must be dried a second time. As always, it is important to protect the seed from rain, insect, animals and dirt. Threshed seed should be dried on mats, plastic sheets or wire mesh trays raised on a platform. Winnowing and sorting; Winnowing should be done to remove chaff, dust and trash from seed. After winnowing, remove shriveled, diseased, broken seed and seed of other varieties by sorting.

Technique:

Leaves: Pick only young leaves, when the beans are about 11/2 months. Put in the basket and transport, wash and prepare to make source.

Technique:

Pods: Pick the young fresh pods, put in a basket, transport, wash, remove the scars, break to pieces and prepare as source.

Technique:

Fresh beans: Pick the ripe pods, put in the basket, transport, open pods to get the beans, wash then prepare as desired.

Technique:

Dry beans in a very clean environment. When dry, remove them from the pods by crushing and remove all the dirt. Dry only those you can dry crush and sort at ago. After removing from pods, dry again at least two times.

Technique:

Get cows’ urine, and add pepper, sprinkle on the beans and dry once in the sun. Put in a clean sack and store. This will help you keep your beans for a very long time without ever getting spoilt.

Technique:

After packing beans in the sack, mix with fish borne to repel pests

Technique:

You may get beans and pass them through bee honey before storing

Common Diseases

Below is a list of different techniques for prevention and management of diseases that commonly affect this crop. If you want to add a technique, open the editor and edit the "Diseases" section.

Common bacterial blight

it is a fungal disease which ooccurs in most bean growing areas

Check out the page Common bacterial blight to find more information about this disease and other crops and livestock affected by it.

Causes:

Fungal

Symptoms:

Prevention:

Treatment:

Spray with 250g of ash and 500g of marigold leaves crush and mix in 10 litres of water ferment for 24 hours add 2 parts of water and one spoonful of powdered soap..... sieve and spray on the crop for 7 days interval untill signs of infection disappear

Rust

This is a fungal disease which causes white spots on the leaves which develop into redish brown pustules on the lower and uppper leaf surface

Check out the page Rust to find more information about this disease and other crops and livestock affected by it.

Causes:

Fungal

Symptoms:

Prevention:

Treatment:

Spray with 250g of ash and 500g of marigold leaves crush and mix in 10 litres of water ferment for 24 hours add 2 parts of water and one spoonful of powdered soap..... sieve and spray on the crop for 7 days interval untill signs of infection disappear

Common Pests

Below is a list of different techniques for prevention and management of pests that commonly affect this crop. If you want to add a technique, open the editor and edit the "Pests" section.

Pod borer

It is a pest which cause dames on the pods

Check out the page Pod borer to find more information about this pest and other crops and livestock affected by it.

Symptoms:

Damaged pods

Prevention and Control:

Treatment:

Plant repellant crops like redpepper

Bean fly

It is a pest that causes yellowing of the beans

Check out the page Bean fly to find more information about this pest and other crops and livestock affected by it.

Symptoms:

Yellowing of beans when still young

Prevention and Control:


Treatment:


Credits

Below is a list of authors who contributed content to this page. If you want to add an author, open the editor and edit the "Credits" section at the bottom of the form.


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